I would like to mention first that I have, on the 9th of November 1923, created a cast medal, the "Hitler Putsch" (K-302) which hit the bullseye."


The medal shows the then Ministerpresident, von Kahr, at the lectern in the Bürgerbräu cellar just as Hitler stepped on the podium with a drawn revolver. Below the podium sits a typical Munich citizen, with his stein of beer, looking puzzled. The reverse shows the march to the  Feldherrnhalle. This building itself is shown as the scene of a puppet show with the title: Munich Theater. In front of it, teenage men with swastika flags, gallows, etc, are sarcastically presented. Behind the curtain stands von Kahr with a mounted gun. Between them, as a laughing third, is a Communist pointing at both of them.

This medal I sent to the coin dealer, Fr. Gebert, in Nuremberg, one of my middlemen. Since I settled in Munich in 1904, I had a very pleasant relationship with the father and founder of the company, C.F. Gebert, an honorable man who commanded the respect of all, in scientific as well as business connections. But how different is his son. During his frequent visits, the senior discussed his son in a critical manner. This I remember very well, because of the unfair treatment I received from the son. Gebert junior rushed to Julius Streicher (the Nazi editor of the pornographic and anti-Semitic periodical, Der Stürmer) to obtain a judgment on my medal design, "Hitler-Putsch." In his little numismatic news bulletin that he issued, he mentioned this meeting. The Stürm also repeated the story (June 1924) which can be read in the clippings. It was clear that I had hit the nail right on the head, which did not bother me too much.



In celebration of the President's election in 1932, I made a significant medal, K-472, with the fine verse written by von Scheffel,


Hail to the German Reich-
In courage equal to the eagle
May it renew itself daily
But God protect it from class-hatred
and race-hatred and mass-hatred
and similar devil's deeds.


After "race-hatred" I put the Star of David, after "devils-deeds" I placed the swastika. How tragic that this should come true later on.


Deliberately I resorted to the use of poetry from our vernacular poet, von Eichendorff, while making the third medal of the times, K-477, in 1932:


And there will come a time
The Lord will put an end
The wrong will be punished
And take away their unjust regiment.


God the Father looks on while the flags fight against each other. Most viewers of this medal did not see the significant hint which I had built in, by having the shaft of a swastika flag broken, and the bearer, a storm-trooper, falling to the ground as if the words of Eichendorff had come true already. 





There came the day of the take-over of power on the 30th of January, 1933. My publisher, Hans Nantz of Berlin-Nikolassee of Bock and Company, called me the very same day and asked whether I had already made an Adolf Hitler medal. My answer was negative, and I also mentioned that I did not intend to engage in such a medal. He asked me whether I was of a different political view. I let him know subtly, although it was on the telephone, how I thought about it and declined categorically to make such a medal. The next day came another phone call. I evaded the issue by stating that I had no picture to work from. Further, I stated, I had never yet seen the new Chancellor face to face. "If you do not want to make the Hitler medal, there are many others who are anxious to do this work," was his prompt reply. But it did not stop at this. The very next day I received a special delivery letter with pictures of Hitler, and the friendly request to submit to the signs of the times and make the medal since the collecting world in Germany wanted a medal of Hitler made only by me.


Because of my pleasant relationship of many years with Nantz, I let myself be persuaded to make the first Hitler medal K-483). For the reverse I used the decree of Hindenburg of May 5th, 1933, after which both flags, the old as well as the new, were rightful emblems of the German Reich and existed side by side. It appealed to my sense of justice that the swastika should not triumph easily over the old honorable flag of the black, white and red colors. On the obverse I used the inscription: REICHSKANZLER AD. HITLER. This was a big blunder which I committed: [AD in German (properly shown as a.D.) is used against a military rank or official position if retired as außer Dienst (out-of-service) - for example: Hauptmann a.D. means Captain (ret)] The connotation was given that it could be interpreted as Chancellor of the Reich, retired (a.D.) whereas the medal intended to show the abbreviation of the first name Adolf as AD in capital letters.

The medal was already minted by the Government mint of Berlin when the adjutant of Hitler appeared and ordered the immediate stop of the striking.

From the Brown House in Munich (the Nazi party headquarters - Das Braune Haus - I received a most insulting telephone call. At the beginning of the conversation the caller had asked me whether I was a party member. When I said no, I was showered with insults of various degrees. Should I dare to put this medal on the market, they would take care of me. The facial expression of Hitler, I was informed, was also much too pugnacious. The fate of this piece, and the following one, was determined by this call.


The metal refinery of J. Baumgartner and Company in Munich, Damenstiftstrasse, commissioned me with the production of another medal. They wanted this medal to be adorned with heads of Hindenburg, von Papen and Hitler. This I liked much better, as Hindenburg's nomination of von Papen as Vice Chancellor indicated the restriction of the absolute power of Hitler. This medal, (opus 484), was presented by the publishers to the "Brown House" for approval. After long months of waiting, the approval for manufacture was refused, mainly for the reason that the reverse did not show the swastika, but rather the colors black-white-red, and also because the artist who designed it was not a party member. Further, the party had already started negotiations for the creation of an official medal with the sculptor, Gloeckler, in Berlin, who held a high rank in the stormtrooper's organization as a Sturmbannführer.

Behind this commission stood Witzig and Company, who had the best of relations with the party; hence our efforts were without results. There even came a strict ban from the government. After this fiasco, which can be explained by my distance from the Nazi party, I did not move a finger in the creation of a commemorative medal. Who can blame me?



Finally I had to admit to myself that since l had created historical medals from the beginning of my career, I could not close my eyes forever to all the coming events, and I had to see my future in medals. This, I felt, was my destiny.
I created the following medals without observing the Nazi rule of presenting every design for approval. I was used to working as a free artist and I intended to have all the other medals of the Third Reich freely designed and executed by me as I saw fit, in relation to the events themselves.

As a historic document of first rank, I saw the opportunity to make K-493, "The Day of Potsdam." Von Hindenburg, Germany's best protector, hands the office of Chancellor over to Adolf Hitler on von Papen's recommendations. With this event there seemed to have taken place a world historical turn of the German internal and foreign policy.  It deserved to be inscribed on a medal.


Due to a commission I had received a picture of Hitler from the Berliner Medaillenmünze, the former Oertel Company, I created the medal Deutseher Einheitsstaat , -"German State of unity," - K-494. I could not help but build into this medal a bitter pill. I showed the building stones of our country, chained to the swastika-crowned pillars to the left and right. I also mentioned Hitler deliberately as the Führer of the "National State of Unity," for which I was often criticized by collectors. The words "Nationalsocialist State" would have been more to their liking. Deep inside, I rejected the National Socialist party, and only registered my opinion.

K-499 came into being because of the death of the victor of Tannenberg. To him I dedicated my last Hindenburg commemorative medal.  First they hauled his mortal frame to the Tannenberg monument which the Weimar Republic had erected. At the end of World War II the Nazis blew this monument up, in order to prevent it from falling into the hands of the Russians. The coffins of Hindenburg and his wife have never been located.


The medal K-501 celebrates the plebiscite on the Saar, which also would have taken place without Hitler.

K-507 - The will to defend military conscription. A German, as well as a clear attitude since our neighbors have the same aims.

The flight of Zeppelins to Berlin (K-516), was a record flight of both Zeppelins to demonstrate the "election of declaration". I always showed my enthusiasm for the Zeppelin flights. If 99% voted "Yes" in this election, you may believe it if you want, but it was a brainwashing for the Germans.

K-517 however, "The German Plan of Peace of March 11th, 1936," had to give the total of the German population the assurance that the government was of good will.

But even the foreign powers paid homage to Hitler during the Olympic Games in Berlin (K-520), and strengthened the German people in their belief that they were on the right track. On the medal no mention is made of this belief.

I set a monument to the founder and reawakener of the Olympic Games, Pierre de Coubertin (K-537), the die of which I engraved in "Solnhofer"-stone.



In K-545 the joining of Austria is shown. The method with which this was accomplished is not known to many people. Let us not forget that a large portion of the population welcomed this step. They joyfully removed the border posts. A dream had become reality. Why should such an event not be shown on a medal?

K-546 commemorates the creation of the "Great German Reich" in1938, the longing of all German speaking people

The return of the German Emperor's crown into the midst of the Reich is shown in K-547, and is a natural event.

This was followed by K-549, "The Munich Agreement on September 29th, 1938." With great satisfaction, the whole world, with England and France leading it, looked forward to these negotiations in Munich. It appeared that an agreement for peace would become reality. We know that the statesmen, Chamberlain and Daladier brought good news of the signing of the agreement to their people, but the Germans had the greater happiness. This was reason enough to create a commemorative medal. I did not submit this piece for approval, as I should have, since the picture of Hitler was involved. The medal was in circulation, unhindered, until the year 1943. Then I received a telephone call from the Director of the State Mint in Munich. He informed me that the Department of Justice of the party had stopped the further sale of the medal. The personalities shown on it were not timely, was their reasoning. In order not to get in a bad standing with the party, I was advised to have each future work approved by Herr Wild, the party’s little underling, an operator of a mint machine. They had become jittery.

A change for the worse took place when Hitler put the pressure on the small nations and Bohmen and Mahren became a protectorate of the Reich (K-553).

Medals of K-560,"Return of the Memel territory to the Reich," and...


...K-561, "Return of Danzig to the Reich," do say that, through the annulment of the Versailles treaty by the Germans, these territories were returned to their country. The whole world was in agreement that these were German areas, cut off from the motherland.

The "Czestochowa" medal of K-562 was originally created by suggestion of a Mr. Amrogowitsch, as a pattern for new Polish 5 and 2 Zloty coins. It was not used, however, at that time. The reverse of this medal symbolically points out that the Shrine of Czestochowa was not damaged by the German side, and stood under the "protection" of the swastika.





Following the declarations of war by England, France, Holland, and Belgium, I created the following pieces, beginning with the assault on Norway; K-569, K-570, K-571,K-572, K-573, and K-574. The wheel of war was rolling. Most did not know where, but many believed a turn for the better would take place at Dunkirk, although politicians bet on the wrong horse with this action. The demands for power became more reckless and irresponsible.


Netherland's Neutrality and Its End (K-570).

The Capitulation of Leopold of Belgium (K-571).

Homecoming of Eupen and Malmedy (K-572).


We Sail Against England (K-573).

The End of the Battle of Flanders (K-574)


The occupation of France and the parade in Paris saw the Nazi government at the heights of power. K-575 commemorates this event.

The Truce With France, K-576, depicting the old style of revenge, uses the historical railroad car in Compiegne. With this medal I reported nothing more than the fact, which was worth reporting to the future generations.

Three Nations, medal K-578 again has a picture of Hitler which I had made by order of the private mint, L. Chr, Lauer, in Nuremberg.  This time I needed the advance permission of von Schulte-Strathaus, the deputy of Hitler in the "Brown House." I took this unusual step to satisfy my client, for without permission, this medal would not have been possible to design and circulate for sale.

General Eduard Dietl, on the medal of K-579, was celebrated as the victor of Narvik in 1940. I had good connections with the general's cousin, Herr Dr. Dietl, a high school official in Memmingen. He arranged to send pictures of the general through his wife. With the medal I honored a soldier's deed, without receiving any fee for it.

The Herman Göring medal of K-580 was made by request of Engineer Paul Gutt of Hameln, one of the enthusiastic collectors in the field of aviation. The medal itself had to express the spirit of the fighter pilots, of which Göring had been a member in the First World War This work, which showed pilot Göring behind the controls in the cockpit of a World War I fighter plane, is in my opinion unique in its composition. A special correspondence-file describes the planning. One copy in silver was handed over by Herrn Gutt to Göring, who had it bound within the form of a book. I planned and executed this medal in line with my spirit of creation without receiving any monetary reward.

The subject in K-581 must be understood as pointing to the future.  The constellation of the planets, Mars and Jupiter which periodically in 1940 and 1941 came near our horizon, tries to point to great events. The world globe, dominated by the swastika, shows in the background the pursuing squads of bombers accomplishing the final destruction. The reverse shows the counting of time at Christ's birth, where we had allegedly the same constellation as at the time of Charlemagne and Johannes Kepler, the great astronomer. Above the shield with the swastika, one sees a walking Taurus, symbolic of the month of Hitler's birth, but also the symbol for Europe. 


The medal of General Rommel (K-582) glorifies the heroism and the sacrifice of a soldier. After the great defeat in Africa, later on, one could attribute the camel to the symbols of deceit and stupidity.  





The following are all of the aviation class. They were created because of suggestions received from Engineer Gutt of Hameln, with the aim to round out his own collection. No need to mention that I was inspired by purely idealistic ideas. They did not get me riches materially. I did not receive payment; I did not expect any. The joy in creating was dominant, as it had been the case from the beginning.






Action in Crete (K-587)

 Ernst Udet (K-590)


Werner Molders (K-591)

Old Eagles Flying Association (K-592)


Emperor's Maneuvres (K-593)

Otto Lilienthal (K-594)

Convoy Battle in the Arctic Ocean (K-597)

The Accident of Zeppelin 129 (K-598)

Stalingrad and the JU-52 Planes (K-604)





The following medallions commemorate the Anglo-American bomber units that destroyed German cities, which I believed also to belong to the historic events series of "flying accomplishments."


K-605 makes reference to the destruction of the Cathedral of Cologne, but also pays tribute to the suffering of unarmed inhabitants of this city, who were exposed to the terror from the skies, waiting in air raid shelters until bombs changed them to cripples, robbed them of their last belongings, yes, in many cases even took their lives.




The medals listed next speak of the devastating results of those bombings which put into ruins and ashes the monumental buildings of past centuries. I have given special attention to these places of culture.


Bombs on Innsbruck (K-606)

 Bombs on the cathedral Aix-la-Chapellel (K-607)

Bombs on Munich Opera House (K-609)

Bombs on Goethe's birthplace  (K-610)


Bombs on the Leibniz house in Hannover (K-611)

Bombs on the city hall of Augsburg (K-612)




Pope Pius XII, the inspired leader who believed “The work of justice is peace" was depicted on medal K-608.


The invasion of 1944 is depicted on medal K-613 with the apocalyptic riders on planes. The German soldier, drafted to the military service in good faith, fighting for the existence of his nation and Europe, is not to blame for the war. Here on our side, as well as over there on the other side, he was obligated to fight. Death laureates the German soldier. The devil tries through trickery to wrest the sword from the soldier's hand. Finally he succeeds. With it ends a heroic but futile battle, burdened with bloodguiltiness, leaving behind chaos and the nation thrown back a hundred years. We should never forget the honorable German soldiers who starved, fought, and suffered for six years, and eventually died for their country.

The words on K-631 are taken from the thirteenth chapter of Revelations, the 16th, 17th, and 18th verses.


16: Also it causes all, both small and great, both rich and poor, both free and slave, to be marked on the right hand or the forehead,

17: So that no one can buy or sell unless he has the mark, that is, the name of the beast or the number of its name.

18: This calls for wisdom; let him who has understanding reckon the number of the beast, for it is a human number, its number is Six Hundred and Sixty Six.


The alphabet shown on the reverse of the medal begins with the figure 100 for "A". Apply the respective numbers of the newly numbered alphabet (100 for A, 101 for B, 102 for C, etc.) to the letters of the name like this; 107 108 119 111 104 117 and add up these figures and the result is 666. Another prophecy received the power of proof with this figure.

Fanaticism on K-632 takes a line of Goethe from his play,"Faust," to characterize the state of the nation:


You did destroy the beautiful world
with a mighty fist - it dies,
it falls into ruins - A demon
smashed it to pieces.

This opus shall serve as the finale.